The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, or Afghanistan as we all know it, is a completely landlocked mountainous country in South-Central Asia. It is bordered on the south and east by Pakistan, on the west by Iran, on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and on the northeast by China. As far back as 50,000 BC, present-day Afghanistan is a landmark of the Silk Road and human migration in the past. Over time, Afghanistan, a multi-ethnic country, has important locations connecting Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent in the Middle East. Because of this, Afghanistan has been the site of military invasions by Alexander the Great, the Mauryan Empire, and Genghis Khan since ancient times.
Even in such a place all living people breathe with some hope. Red blood runs all over the human body. The anarchy in Afghanistan does not start yesterday. It goes back 100 years. Even in the past, tens of thousands of people may have died untimely in the tragic story of this unfortunate kingdom ruled by ashes under the ashes. Tens of thousands of young children, adults, and young people who were to take over the future of the world today may have died. Thousands of miserable little sons and daughters would have died in this damned Afghan land without food, without water to drink and without parental love. The story of the tears of the land where there were people suffering without mothers and without food, very briefly, you thought to write for no other reason than to think a little about the consequences of the gradual drying up of the earthly, heartless people. The whole world will have to live tomorrow as a result of the extinction of people with hearts and minds, just as the Afghan people live today.
The first Afghan invasion in recent history took place in 1839. Britain In December 1838, a force of about 21,000 Indian troops marched northwest from the Punjab, and in March 1839, as the winter receded through the mountains. During this time the British easily captured Katta and Kandahar, and James was brought to the German army by Dest Mohamed’s army at Jesuit. The leader, Emer, fled to Buhar via Bamarn and was succeeded by Dest Mohamed, then leader, 30 years later by Britain.
Satisfied with this easy victory, the hot British withdrew from Afghanistan, and Dest Mohamed was not ready to give up this defeat so easily. Then, in 1840, Dest Mohamed launched a counterattack from Buhari. As a result, Britain re-invaded Afghanistan. There Dest Mohamed was captured and brought to India as a prisoner. In the summer and autumn of 1856, Dest Mohammed’s son Mohamed Akbar left Afghanistan for his camp in Bamiyan with the Afghans and arrived in Afghanistan on November 2, 1841, following the assassination of Alexander Burns and his supporters in Kabul. Britain watched in silence.
However, after 1842, Afghanistan retained its independence, and for another three decades, the two European powers stared at each other with their eagle eyes. During this time, Russia occupied most of Central Asia, crossed the border into Afghanistan, and occupied both Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Afghanistan defended its independence despite the defeat of Russia in the Battle of Jokoptesh in 1881.
Then, angered by Caesar’s expansion, Britain set its eyes on the northern border with India. In 1878, the Afghan people invaded Afghanistan again. It launched the Anglo-Afghan War. This reaffirmed the Afghan people’s reluctance to allow foreign forces, including Britain, to remain on Afghan soil, and their distrust of foreign powers. It is clear that the Afghan people have not suffered since yesterday.
Sher Ali fled his capital and country in early 1879, dying in captivity. As in the First World War, British troops occupied Kabul, and on May 26, 1879, a treaty signed at Gandomac was accepted by Sher Alley’s son. Yakak Khan later agreed to have a permanent British embassy in Emir Kabul. In addition, he agreed to maintain his foreign relations with other countries “in accordance with the wishes and instructions” of the British Government. The treaty was signed on May 26, 1879 by Sir Louis Cavanari, the ruler of Afghanistan, and the British negotiator Sir Louis Cavani. However, this British victory was short-lived. On September 3, 1879, Sir Louis Kawasnari, British envoy, and his bodyguard were assassinated in Kabul. As a result, British troops were sent back and captured Kabul before the end of October. Jacob abdicated and remained vacant until July 1880. Emir Abd al-Raman, a nephew of Shar al-Qaeda, later became its ruler. During the reign of Abd al-Raman, the borders of modern Afghanistan were created by Britain and the Russians.
In the 19th century, two large European empires, the Russian and British empires, tended to dominate Central Asia. With the outbreak of World War I (1914 – 1918), the Ottomans of Turkey supported the British in Afghanistan. Despite their support, the then Afghan ruler, Abdullah Khan, did not take part in it throughout the war. Abubullah was assassinated on February 20, 1919, by members of the anti-British movement. His son Amanullah Chan succeeded to the throne. In his coronation speech, Amanullah declared that Afghanistan would be completely liberated from Great Britain. That statement was so severe that in May 1919 the Third Anglo-Afghan War broke out. The conflict between the Afghan army and the British Indian army, which was exhausted and ineffective during World War I, was limited to a series of conflicts. However, during the month-long war, the Afghans were able to carry on their own affairs. On August 8, 1919, a peace treaty was signed at Rawalpindi (now Pakistan) recognizing the independence of Afghanistan. It was amended in 1921.
Before signing the final agreement with Britain, the Afghans signed a friendly agreement with the new Bolshevik regime in the Soviet Union. This made Afghanistan the first country to recognize the Soviet state, and the two governments, which lasted until December 1979, developed a “special relationship” with the Soviet Union. During the Afghan war, the Soviet Union once again invaded Afghanistan. During this time, the Soviet Union supported the Communist government in Afghanistan in its conflict with anti-communist Muslim guerrillas.
Intervened. The Soviet Union remained in Afghanistan from 1978 to 1992. By 1982, 2.8 million Afghans had sought refuge in Pakistan, and another 1.5 million had fled to Iran. By the late 1980s, the Soviet Union was collapsing and the war in Afghanistan was turning into a quagmire. About 15,000 Soviet soldiers were killed and many more were killed. In 1988, the Soviet Union signed an agreement with the United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan to withdraw its troops. The Soviet withdrawal ended on February 15, 1989, and Afghanistan was re – annexed.
Doid Khan overthrows the previous monarchy in Afghanistan. With this break-up, Afghanistan was ruled by various conspiracies and differences of opinion. There were various struggles at that time over how to govern Afghanistan without a proper goal, and with this, the communist rule in Afghanistan was overthrown. That ‘s it. The Soviet Union intervened. Simultaneously, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.
At the time, the United States and the Soviet Union were embroiled in a Cold War. At the same time, there was a global competition for the betterment of other nations. The United States was interested to see if the Soviet Union would work with Afghanistan to establish a partisan communist government in Moscow. To prevent this, the United States reportedly funded rebel forces to oppose the Soviets. Jihad began in Afghanistan on December 20, 1979. From 1979 to 1989, there were battles between the Afghan Mujahideen and the Soviets. The Mujahideen fought against the Soviets from the Hindu Kush Mountains in Afghanistan, and these U.S.-funded rebels became known as the Mujahideen. It means “fighters.” Also known as “pursuit” in Arabic.
The popularity of the Mujahideen militants and their extremist version of Islam drove the Soviets out of the country. The Arab Muslims were eager and supportive of their experience and experimentation. Meanwhile, rich as well as proud young people were attracted to Afghanistan. Among them were Osama bin Laden and Ayman Zawahiri, the leader of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization.
Around 1980, Osama bin Laden began recruiting Arabs for jihad in Afghanistan. The 9/11 attacks were also part of Osama bin Laden’s role. During this time there was a war between Osama bin Laden and Evan al-Zawahiri, an Egyptian Islamic group. During this time they recruited Arabs to fight the Afghan Mujahideen. The group, which later became Al Qaeda, began as a network of jihadists.
By 1989, the Soviets had withdrawn from Afghanistan, and around 1996 the Taliban captured Kabul. About three years later, the regime in Kabul was able to form a government with Marxist President Najibullah. By this time there were fierce clashes between other Mujahideen groups under the leadership of Mujahideen Rambani. Kabul was destroyed by their wars against each other. Tens of thousands of civilians were killed and rocket fire destroyed civilian infrastructure.
The Taliban thus had the opportunity to seize power in the troubled Afghanistan. The Taliban were nurtured in Pakistan and they first emerged in Kandahar. They seized control of Kabul in 1996 and by 1998 they were in control of the entire country.
Back on October 7, 2001, the United States and Great Britain launched a military offensive against Afghanistan, with international participation from countries including Canada, Australia and France. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States were carried out by Al Qaeda in retaliation. From 1992 to 2001, there was a civil war in Afghanistan. Najibullah, who was in power at the time, was ousted. At the same time, the Kabul government was continuing to provide military and economic power and strength internationally.
At the time, the Mujahideen, which had fought the Communists, had formed a fragile interim government in a coalition of parties, but general peace and stability remained a distant hope. As the rival Trilogy struggled for influence, tensions between nations erupted and the economy collapsed.
Meanwhile, an executive office had been established for the administration and the executive office had decided to appoint the president to divide the presidency between different groups. Accordingly, Burhanuddin Rambani became president and his successor was denied power after his reign. At the same time, opposition forces intensified again, inflicting heavy damage on parts of the capital with the attacks of Islamist leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. At the same time, the United Nations Food Program continued with international assistance.
During this time, law and order was disrupted in many parts of Afghanistan, outside of Kabul, and Afghanistan became a country ruled by Trojilian leaders and warriors who charged and paid for the transportation of trucks on the Afghan border. In other areas, profiteering was common, and Afghans were disappointed. The suffering of the people in the land of Afghanistan, ruled by injustice, is miserable.
In 1994, the Taliban emerged. The spiritual and political leader of the organization was Mullah Mohammad Omar, a former Mujahideen fighter who was best known for his devotion and spirituality. The organization had links with ISIS members in Pakistan as well as high-ranking Pakistani officials and was able to obtain money from Saudi Arabia in various ways. By 1995, the Taliban had captured the city of Herat. By 2001, the Taliban had more than nine-tenths the size of Afghanistan. The Taliban, which even founded Osama bin Laden, is now receiving US support. Osama bin Laden was killed by the United States, but the United States is also a supporter of the Taliban.
There are also reports that China is on the other side. At the time of writing, the Taliban have announced that they have completely seized control of Afghanistan. However, the Northern Alliance, the legitimate army in Afghanistan, has announced that it is strategically retreating, and various reports indicate that the Taliban are behaving in a brutal manner, killing their opponents in Afghanistan. They have also appointed a government. According to international media reports, the group also destroyed Bamiyan Buddha statues, which are also known to be cruel to women and girls in Afghanistan. It is also reported that journalists working in certain international media institutions are also being affected. The heads of government that have been declared so far are also known as international terrorists.
Following the capture of Kabul, the Taliban declared to the world that they would definitely establish peace and reconciliation in Afghanistan. Despite their promises to protect the rights of children and women and to give the media freedom, international media reports point to a different chain of events. However, as of yesterday (7), the Taliban has established a government in Afghanistan. For that with China
They said they would join hands. Looking at the past of Afghanistan, it is clear that tomorrow is uncertain. The omens of a civil war are also looming. However, we are also looking at how this organization, which deals with international terrorist networks and is a terrorist organization, is recognized by world organizations. Also, if you read the history of Afghanistan, you will understand that despite the formation of a government by this organization in Afghanistan, the fires hidden under the ashes will not survive.
Based on online information.
By Sri Nissanka Mayadunna.